Sweden has a long tradition of high female labour force participation and an ambitious family policy. Parents’ insurance and a well-developed child care system have made it possible for parents to combine work and family life. Even if this family policy has contributed to an increase in female labour force participation, there are considerable gender differences on the labour market. Women more often work part time, for example, and in the public sector. Women have a longer education than men but earn less on average and are to a smaller extent represented in higher managerial positions. At the same time, women take out more parental leave and have a higher sickness absence.

In the research on the gender differences on the labour market, we study:

-whether there are any established expectations in society about the different responsibilities of women and men for home and children that affect individuals’ and employers’ decisions on the labour market

-what role family policy and social insurances play for gender differences on the labour market

-to what extent gender differences on the labour market can be considered as discrimination. Discrimination can occur if employers have different expectations for women and men, respectively, where it can be more difficult for women to be promoted and obtain higher wages if, for example, they are expected to take out more parental leave

-whether the design of family policy can affect employers’ expectations on employees.

Naturally, the difference between the situation for men and women on the labour market also emerges in all our research.


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